Categories
Historic America

Hanover Battlefield in York County, Pennsylvania

This small skirmish in a small Pennsylvania town had big consequences on the nearby Battle of Gettysburg.

The Battle of Hanover was fought on June 30, 1863 between Union cavalry commanded by Brig. Gen. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart in the Borough of Hanover, Pennsylvania during the American Civil War. This inconclusive skirmish, part of the Gettysburg Campaign, resulted in approximately 332 total casualties. It delayed Stuart from reuniting with General Robert E. Lee’s army at Gettysburg, denying him critical intelligence during the early stages of that battle.

In June 1863, after a dramatic victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee made the fateful decision to move north with his Army of Northern Virginia and invade Pennsylvania. The Union Army of the Potomac was slow to respond, and Confederate forces met little resistance as they fanned out across southern Pennsylvania. Confederate cavalry under Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, however, became trapped east of the Union army, and Stuart’s exhausted troopers fought several skirmishes to cut their way back to Lee’s army.

Categories
Historic America

Middleburg Battlefield in Loudoun County, Virginia

Visit Civil War-era buildings and a brand-new historic park at the heart of this little-known cavalry battlefield.

The Battle of Middleburg was fought on June 17 and 19, 1863 between Union cavalry commanded by Col. Alfred N. Duffié and Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg and Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart in Loudoun County, Virginia during the American Civil War. This inconclusive skirmish immediately followed the Battle of Aldie and was part of the Gettysburg Campaign. It resulted in approximately 250 total casualties.

On June 1, 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia slipped away from the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, and headed north to invade Pennsylvania. Lee entrusted his cavalry commander, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, to screen his army’s movement from the enemy. Stuart’s cavalry fanned out across the Loudoun Valley in northern Virginia.

Categories
Historic America

Hagerstown Battlefield in Hagerstown, Maryland

A rare instance of Civil War urban combat raged in Hagerstown, as blue and gray troopers fought in the streets and cannon balls flew over the town square.

The first and second battles of Hagerstown were fought on July 6 and July 12, 1863 between Union cavalry commanded by Brig. Gens. Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and George A. Custer and Confederate cavalry commanded by Col. John Chambliss and Brig. Gen. Beverly Robertson in Hagerstown, Maryland during the American Civil War. The first engagement was a Confederate victory, but Union forces ultimately prevailed in the second as the Army of Northern Virginia continued its retreat south following the Battle of Gettysburg.

After three bloody days of fighting around Gettysburg, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee retreated southwest toward the Potomac River and Virginia. The main army slowly settled into defensive works around Williamsport, Maryland, while a rearguard was stationed in Hagerstown and nearby Funkstown. Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was tasked with keeping the Union army at bay while Confederate forces found passage across the swollen river.

Categories
Historic America

Unison Battlefield in Loudoun County, Virginia

Thanks to the effort of preservationists, you can visit key sites in this running cavalry fight from the Civil War.

The Battle of Unison was fought from October 31 to November 2, 1862 between elements of the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan and Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart in Loudoun County, Virginia during the American Civil War. This inconclusive battle halted the Union pursuit of Robert E. Lee’s retreating army following the Battle of Antietam and resulted in several hundred casualties.

In late September 1862, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia limped back into Virginia from Maryland. From October 10-12, Lee’s trusted cavalry commander, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, rode around McClellan’s Army of the Potomac to distract him from his pursuit. McClellan settled onto the Loudoun Valley, where Stuart caught up with him and fell upon and scattered a small Union force at Mountville on Halloween.

Categories
Historic America

Monterey Pass Battlefield in Franklin County, Pennsylvania

Visit the scene of the Union army’s most crippling blow against Robert E. Lee’s defeated Confederates following the Battle of Gettysburg.

The Battle of Monterey Pass was fought from July 4 to 5, 1863 between Union cavalry commanded by Brig. Gen. H. Judson Kilpatrick and Confederate cavalry commanded by Brig. Gens. Beverly H. Robertson and William E. “Grumble” Jones in Franklin County, Pennsylvania during the American Civil War. The battle, which immediately followed the Army of Northern Virginia’s retreat from Gettysburg, was a Union victory and resulted in approximately 1,394 total casualties, mostly captured Confederates.

After three bloody days of fighting around Gettysburg, both sides spent a rainy Independence Day licking their wounds. Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee sent wagons filled with supplies and thousands of wounded soldiers southwest in preparation for retreat. That morning, wagons from Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s Second Corps joined the miles-long supply train being funneled through Monterey Pass in South Mountain.

Categories
Historic America

Upperville Battlefield in Loudoun County, Virginia

Heroic efforts by preservationists have recently saved key portions of this battlefield for our enjoyment and education.

The Battle of Upperville was fought on June 21, 1863 between Union forces commanded by Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton and Col. Strong Vincent and Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart in Loudoun County, Virginia during the American Civil War. This inconclusive battle followed the battles of Middleburg and Aldie in the opening stages of the Gettysburg Campaign. It resulted in approximately 452 total casualties.

On June 1, 1863, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia slipped away from the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, and headed north to invade Pennsylvania. Lee entrusted his cavalry commander, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, to screen his army’s movement from the enemy. Stuart’s cavalry fanned out across the Loudoun Valley in northern Virginia.

Categories
Historic America

Funkstown Battlefield in Washington County, Maryland

This small town could have witnessed a sequel to the Battle of Gettysburg, but the exhausted combatants had no stomach for another bloodbath.

The Battle of Funkstown was fought on July 10, 1863 between Union cavalry commanded by Brig. Gen. John Buford and Confederate cavalry commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart in and around Funkstown, Maryland during the American Civil War. The battle, which followed the Army of Northern Virginia’s retreat from Gettysburg, was a minor Confederate victory and resulted in approximately 381 total casualties.

After three bloody days of fighting around Gettysburg, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee retreated southwest toward the Potomac River and Virginia. The main army settled into defensive works around Williamsport, Maryland, while a rearguard was stationed in Hagerstown and nearby Funkstown. Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was tasked with keeping the Union army at bay while Confederate forces found passage across the swollen river.